This music genre can be named secular or liturgical music. The music of the Europe mainly developed from out of European popular kinds of music. It borrowed a system of staff notation.
Generally, composers used the Western staff notation to appoint the speed, meter, individual rhythms and pitch to the performer. But this set less space for improvisation and individual ornamentation. There are no such things in the Japanese and Indian classical music.
But the term "classical music" did not exist till 19th century. This term appeared with a purpose to glorify the period of great composers such as Beethoven and Bach. The earliest reference to the term was detected in 1836 in the Oxford English Dictionary.Read more...